springs before ties
springs after ties
This process is nicely explained by upholster.com:
"To refurbish springs, the upholsterer re-attaches loose springs, replaces any if necessary, and re-ties the entire set, one by one. Each coil is sewn to the webbing... then tied to the coil next to it. Each row of coils is then tied front to back, side to side, and diagonally two ways, 8 in all. And all are tied on exactly the same level to make a symmetrical, even suspension for the most comfortable seating."
What upholster.com doesn't tell you is how painful it is! My advice to anyone tying springs for the fist time: Wear gloves. The hand discomfort is similar to tightly lacing up skates or boots...48 times. By the end of my 8-way tie I had gashes on both of my pinkies and blisters on every other finger. My battle scars. On the bright side, all of the hard stuff is behind me. All that's left is padding and fabric!